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The European Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus antiquus) was a species of hippopotamus that ranged across Europe, becoming extinct some time before the last ice age at the end of the Pleistocene epoch. H. antiquus ranged from the Iberian Peninsula to the British Isles to the Rhine River to Greece

The European Hippo was similar in size and form to Hippopotamus gorgops, and much larger than the common Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). The European Hippo is believed to have first appeared around 1.8 million years ago, compared to 2 million years ago for H. amphibius. Beginning in the Middle Pleistocene, H. amphibius also lived in Europe, but is not considered a European Hippopotamus.

The Cretan Dwarf Hippopotamus (H. creutzburgi) is believed to be derived from the European Hippopotamus through the process of insular dwarfism on the island of Crete.

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