The Cyprus Dwarf Hippopotamus or Cypriot Pygmy Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus minor) is an extinct species of hippo that inhabited the island of Cyprus until the early Holocene.
The 200 kilogram (440 lbs) Cyprus Dwarf Hippo was roughly the same size as the extant pygmy hippopotamus. Unlike the modern pygmy hippo, it is thought that the Cyprus Dwarf became small through the process of insular dwarfism which is caused by gene pools limited to a small environment. This same process is believed to cause the dwarfism found in some dwarf elephants, the Pygmy Mammoth, and Homo floresiensis. The animal is estimated to have measured 76 centimetres tall and 121 centimetres long.
At the time of its extinction between 11,000 and 9,000 years ago, the Cyprus Dwarf Hippo was the largest animal on the island of Cyprus. The herbivorous Cyprus Dwarf Hippo had no natural predators.
Excavation sites on Cyprus, particularly Aetokremnos, provide evidence that the Cyprus Dwarf Hippo may have encountered and been driven to extinction by the early human residents of Cyprus.